The symptoms of human influenza were clearly described by Hippocrates about 2, 400 years ago. Although the virus seems to have caused epidemics throughout human history, historical data on influenza are difficult to interpret, because the symptoms can be similar to other respiratory diseases. The first convincing record of an influenza pandemic was the focus in 1580, which began in Russia and spread to Europe via Africa.
In Rome, over 8, 000 people were killed and several Spanish cities were almost wiped out. Pandemics continued sporadically throughout the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries, with the pandemic of 1830-1833 being particularly widespread; infected approximately a quarter of the people exposed.
The most famous and lethal outbreak was the 1918 flu pandemic (Spanish flu pandemic) (type a flu, H1N1 subtype), which lasted from 1918 to 1919.
It is not known exactly how many he killed, but estimates range between 20 and 100 million people.
This pandemic has been described as "the greatest medical holocaust in history" and may have killed as many people as the Black Death.
The 1918 flu pandemic (Spanish flu pandemic) was truly global, spreading even to the islands of the Arctic and remote Pacific. Unusually severe disease killed between 2 and 20% of those infected, unlike the mortality outbreak of influenza more usual 0.1%.
This is unusual since influenza is normally most deadly to the very young (2 years old) and very old (over 70 years).
The total mortality of pandemic killed is unknown but it is estimated that 2.5% to 5% of the world's population was killed. About 25 million were killed in the first 25 weeks, in contrast, HIV / AIDS has killed 25 million in the first 25 years.
The first influenza virus to be isolated was from poultry, when in 1901 the causative agent of a disease called "fowl plague" was passed through Chamberland filters, which have pores that are too small for bacteria to pass.
The etiological cause of influenza, the Orthomyxoviridae family of viruses, was first discovered in pigs by Richard Shope in 1931.
This discovery was followed by isolation of the virus from humans by a group headed by Patrick Laidlaw at the Medical Research Council in the United Kingdom in 1933.
However, it was not until Wendell Stanley first crystallized tobacco mosaic virus in 1935 that the non-cellular nature of viruses was appreciated.
The first significant step towards preventing influenza was the development in 1944 of a killed-virus vaccine for influenza by Thomas Francis.
This work constructed by Australian Frank Macfarlane Burnet, which showed that the virus has lost virulence when it was cultivated in fertilized chicken eggs.
Application of this observation by Francis allowed his group of researchers from the University of Michigan to develop the first influenza vaccine, with the support of the U.S. Army.
The Army was deeply involved in this research due to its experience of influenza in World War I, when thousands of soldiers were killed by the virus in a matter of months.
However, the economic impacts of past pandemics has not been intensively studied, and some authors have suggested that the Spanish influenza actually had a positive long-term growth of income per capita, despite a large reduction in the workforce and depressive effects serious short-term.
If Adolf Hitler...2002-01-04 09:19:51 by justyouraveragecitizen
IF ADOLF HITLER...
by George Gerbner
If New York glitters like gold
and has buildings with 500 bars,
let me leave it written that they were built from the sweat of the canefields:
the banana plantation is a green inferno
so that in New York they may drink and dance...
From Grievious Happenings
by Pablo Neruda, translated by Victoria Ortiz
In 1934 Hitler came to power promising his German corporate handlers to 'fight communism. ' He had to send in the stormtroopers to smash all radical opposition.
Today he would look over the U.S. scene with some satisfaction. In the U.S. today there is no significant radical opposition to fight. There is no mainstream political choice to the one-party two-branches system. There is no socialist, communist,...
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