August 29, 2013 – 01:54

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Human Genome Project Completion: Frequently Asked Questions

The April 14, 2003, the National Institute of Human Genome Research (NHGRI), the Department of Energy (DOE) and its partners in the International Consortium for Human Genome Sequencing, announced the successful completion of the Human Genome Project.

A genome is an entire collection of deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) of an organism or a chemical compound that contains the genetic instructions needed to develop and direct the activities of any organization. DNA molecules are made up of two helices twisted and matched. Each propeller is made up of four chemical units, called nucleotide bases. The bases are adenine (A), thymine (T), guanine (G) and cytosine (C). The bases are paired opposite helices specifically, an A always pairs with T and C always with a G.

The human genome contains approximately 3, 000 million of these base pairs, which are in the 23 pairs of chromosomes within the nucleus of all our cells. Each chromosome contains hundreds of thousands of genes, which have the instructions for making proteins. Each of the estimated 30, 000 genes in the human genome produces an average of three proteins.

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Sequencing means to determine the exact order of the base pairs in a DNA segment. Human chromosomes are between 50 million to 300 million base pairs. Because the bases are paired, and the identity of one of the bases in the pair determines the other member of the pair, scientists do not have to submit the two bases of the pair.

The main method used by the HGP to produce the final version of the human genetic code is based on a map, or in a sequence based on BAC, which is the acronym for "bacterial artificial chromosome". Human DNA is fragmented into relatively large pieces but of a manageable size (between 150, 000 and 200, 000 base pairs). The fragments are cloned into bacteria, which stored and replicated human DNA so that it can be prepared in large enough quantities to sequence it. If they are carefully chosen to minimize overlap, it takes about 20, 000 different BAC clones to cover 3, 000 million base pairs of the human genome. A collection of BAC clones containing the entire human genome is called a "library BAC".

In the method based on BAC, it does a "mapping" of each BAC clone to determine the location from which the DNA of the human genome in the BAC clones. Using this approach ensures that scientists can know the exact location of the letters of DNA are sequenced in each clone and its spatial relationship with other human DNA sequenced BAC clones.

For sequencing, cut in each BAC clone still smaller fragments having a length of about 2, 000 bases. These pieces are called "subclones". In these subclones carried out a "reaction sequence." Then the reaction products are introduced in sequence in the machine sequencer (sequencer). The sequencer generates 500 to 800 base pairs of A, T, C and G in each reaction sequence, so that each base is sequenced about ten times. A computer then these short sequences together to form continuous lengths of sequence representing the human DNA in the BAC clone.

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This is intentionally kept secret to protect the volunteers who provided DNA samples for sequencing. The DNA sequence derived from several volunteers. To ensure they are not revealed the identities of the volunteers, we developed a very careful process to recruit volunteers and to collect and maintain the blood samples that were the source of the DNA.


Russian Psycotropic weapon?

2007-12-29 06:45:43 by masterminds

Methods of latent impact on the human psyche are no longer secret.
Academician Igor Smirnov of the Russian Academy of Sciences is often referred to as a father of psychotropic weapons. At the age of 28, he became the head of a laboratory in Russia’s 1st Medical Institute. He is the author of numerous sensational discoveries. Back then, he was faced with a task to “create” human-geniuses, who would be capable of becoming great scientists, magnificent inventors

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